Patients with Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia (HHT) often have arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), which are improperly developed blood vessels that can sometimes cause bleeding. AVMs can form in various organs and tissues within the body. While many individuals with internal AVMs may not experience symptoms, those with AVMs in the lungs may suffer from low blood oxygen levels, and AVMs in the brain can lead to seizures or headaches. Additionally, if AVMs bleed, it can elevate the risk of stroke, making proper monitoring and management of these malformations crucial for HHT patients.


Brain AVMs

In HHT patients, brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are improperly developed blood vessels that can cause serious complications. These AVMs can lead to symptoms such as seizures, headaches, and neurological deficits due to abnormal blood flow. If a brain AVM ruptures, it can result in a hemorrhagic stroke, posing a significant risk to the patient’s health. Regular monitoring and early intervention are essential to manage brain AVMs in HHT patients, aiming to prevent severe outcomes and maintain neurological function.

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Liver AVMs


In HHT patients, liver arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are abnormal blood vessels that can cause various complications. These AVMs can lead to high-output heart failure, due to increased blood flow through the liver. Symptoms may include fatigue, swelling, and abdominal pain. While many liver AVMs remain asymptomatic, severe cases can cause significant liver and heart issues. Regular monitoring and appropriate medical management are crucial to prevent complications and maintain liver and heart health in HHT patients.

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Pulmonary AVMs (PAVMs)

Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) in HHT patients are abnormal connections between the pulmonary arteries and veins, bypassing the normal capillary bed. This direct shunting of blood from arteries to veins results in poorly oxygenated blood entering the systemic circulation. PAVMs can lead to symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue, and low blood oxygen levels. In severe cases, they can cause complications like stroke or brain abscess. Regular screening and appropriate treatment, such as embolization, are essential to manage PAVMs and maintain adequate oxygen levels in HHT patients.

(Shunting is a medical term, referring to the process of blood flowing through an abnormal or alternate pathway in the circulatory system, bypassing the usual route).

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